Document Type: Original Article
Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
Introduction: Selective immunoglobulin a deficiency (IgAD) is the most frequent of the primary antibody deficiencies. Patients with IgAD can be either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients suffer from a wide range of manifestations including allergy, malignancy, and autoimmunity. The prevalence of allergic diseases is assumed to be increased in IgAD patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of allergic disorders in IgAD patients as well as a comparison between these patients and IgA deficient patients without allergy.
Methods: The present cohort study included 166 IgAD patients who were diagnosed at the Research Center for immunodeficiencies in children's medical Center. To compare clinical data and laboratory records, all IgAD patients were classified into two groups as follows: patients with allergic diseases and patients without allergic diseases.
Results: Among 166 patients with IgA deficiency, allergy was seen in 33 patients (19.8%). In this study, respiratory tract infections were the most common clinical presentation in all patients (47.6%). Among the infectious manifestations, pneumonia and sinusitis were significantly higher in patients with allergy compared with patients without allergy (respectively 48.5% vs 26.3%; p = 0.013, 48.5% vs 20.3%; p = 0.001). Based on the laboratory data, the number of platelet and B cells (CD20+) were significantly higher in patients with allergy in comparison to patients without allergy (respectively, p = 0.025, p = 0.44)
Conclusion: The relation between IgAD disease and allergy could lead to severe clinical complications. Thus, these allergy disorders should be considered as an important feature for suitable management and enhancing the life quality in patients with IgAD.