Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Patients with Agammaglobulinemia

Document Type: Original Article


1 Student Research Committee, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

2 Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

4 Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran


Background: The most common symptoms of agammaglobulinemia are recurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence and type of gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations in patients with agammaglobulinemia.
Methods: A total of 147 patients with agammaglobulinemia were entered into this study. For each patient clinical, immunological and laboratory data were documented.
Results: The GI manifestations as the first presentation of the immunodeficiency diseases were reported in 14.5% of patients mostly due to chronic and recurrent diarrhea. History of GI manifestations was evident in 67 patients (45.6%). Recurrent, chronic or bloody diarrhea (36.1%), vomiting (10.2%), and gastroenteritis (6.1%) were the most common GI manifestations in patients with agammaglobulinemia, respectively.
Conclusion: The bowel is exposed to multiple antigens including gut microbiota and pathogens from the environment. Mucosal antibodies play a major role in protection and homeostasis; hence, decreasing level of IgA can provide the opportunity for infectious diarrhea and more pathogen to attack.


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